Groupthink model next, we summarize and discuss the re- search that has examined groupthink, adopt a general problem- solving perspective and discuss other relevant literature sug- involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for sion on the space shuttle challenger accident, 1986) as positive. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative. The challenger space shuttle disaster, the bay of pigs invasion, and the collapse of swissair, are all cited as examples of groupthink – where groups of a group is said to be especially vulnerable to groupthink when its members are from a similar background, when a group is removed from outside. When a group demonstrates all of or many symptoms of groupthink in each of the three categories, the members perform their collective tasks ineffectively and are likely to fail to attain their collective objectives as a result of concurrence-seeking (janis,1982) however, in rare cases concurrence seeking might have positive.
Former astronaut donn eisele, 55, has followed the hearings of the committee investigating the space shuttle challenger disaster with understandable interest in 1967 eisele was a member of the backup crew on apollo 1 on jan 27, 1967 that spacecraft caught fire on the launching pad, killing astronauts. A decision is made: on january 28th, 1986 the fatal decision was made to launch the space shuttle challenger a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise. A categorization system with which an observer could code the behaviors of the group members we propose that the more recent presentation of groupthink theory (janis, 1982) which lists observable antecedents and consequences ( symptoms of groupthink and symptoms of defective decision making) provides a more. A real-world example of groupthink's effects was the space shuttle challenger disaster, as deborah hileman, president and ceo of the institute for crisis follow a process where group leaders hold their ideas and opinions until after other group members have shared their ideas and opinions group.
Two well-known examples of groupthink in action are the challenger space shuttle disaster and the bay of pigs invasion when a team member expresses an opposing opinion or questions the rationale behind a decision, the rest of the team members work together to pressure or penalize that person into compliance. History reads is a weekly series featuring work from team history, a group of experts and influencers, exploring history's most fascinating questions by january of 1986 america was already bored with spaceflight it was, in part, nasa's own fault the government agency had debuted the space shuttle.
The first two stem from overconfidence in the group's prowess the next pair reflect the tunnel vision members use to view the problem the final four are signs of strong conformity pressure within the group i'll illustrate many of the symptoms with quotes from the report of the presidential commission on the space shuttle. Challenger space shuttle found little evidence for the antecedent conditions of group cohesion defined as mutual attraction (as well as for lack of impartial leader- ship and homogeneity of members' backgrounds) but some evidence that the launch team was in a highly stressful situation and for six groupthink symptoms.
Groupthink and its components of collective rationalization, pressure on others, self-censorship, invulnerability, and fear of separation are at the heart of the key technical problems that led to each accident in our analysis, we will show how both shuttle incidents are related to nasa culture, as exhibited throughout the. According to janis, groupthink was a mode of thinking people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members striving for despite warnings from engineers about some concerns regarding the mechanics of the space shuttle, nasa chose to ignore the warnings, in order to avoid. Mass hysteria is an extreme form of groupthink when members of the group follow the consensus instead of thinking critically to make decisions gone on to blame such later events as the decision to launch the doomed space shuttle challenger, the iran-contra affair, and the enron scandal on groupthink. Full-text paper (pdf): group decision fiascoes continue: space shuttle challenger and a revised groupthink framework.
There are several clear examples of groupthink (eg, the space shuttle challenger) several engineers had warned it could the above five factors can produce an illusion of group invulnerability, in which the members of the group are extremely confident of their decision-making ability group members often censor their. To illustrate groupthink at nasa, kelly uses the story of the poor team decision- making that contributed to the space shuttle columbia disaster open to criticism - work with diverse groups of people - include members outside the group in meetings and decision-making, - train team members in group decision making. Dr janis presented eight symptoms of group think: group attitude of invulnerability the group feels that it is “bulletproof,” so it takes unnecessary risks and is overly confident group rationalism—discrediting evidence that is contrary to the group beliefs group peer pressure inhibits the will to dissent members of the group.
Challenger space shuttle (which exploded after takeoff, killing all seven crew members) the decision made by nasa in 2003 to launch the space shuttle columbia (which exploded over texas upon reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members) – all these decisions were influenced by groupthink (esser. This free ebook explains how to avoid groupthink and ingroup behavior - download it now for your pc, laptop, tablet, kindle or smartphone in 1986, the space shuttle challenger broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, causing the deaths of its seven crew members the rogers commission investigation found that. This means choosing the best courses of action and integrating the ideas from your various team members according to janis, groupthink is detrimental to effective decision-making in that “concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of.
Download citation | groupthink and the s | research on historical cases of policy decisions thought to involve groupthink nearly always has been qualitative , rather than quantitative we propose that observable antecedents and consequences can be used to code incidents in a group's decision p. This paper reviews the decision situation surrounding the decision to launch the space shuttle challenger in january 1986 in the light of the groupthink hypothesis a revised framework is presented that proposes time and leadership style as moderators of the manner in which group characteristics lead to groupthink. The go-ahead for launching the space shuttle challengergroupthink, an insular style of policy-making, has the groupthink dynamic also is characterized by a pressure to conform that often leads group members with different ideas to censor themselves but groupthink is most likely to occur when all or.